Elena Amato Borrelli – Expert

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About Author

Elena Amato Borrelli is a Certified Physician Assistant with diverse experience in the medical field. She has worked in healthcare for 20 years and currently works as a medical educator and writer. She is also currently pursuing her Doctorate of Medical Science. She has a passion for health education and improving the quality of healthcare. Elena is also a co-founder of Pathway Patient Advocates, a private patient advocate company. In her free time, Elena enjoys spending time with her husband and two children.

Risk Factors

Elation overcomes your senses as you prepare for the birth of your child. You have gathered the clothes, set up the nursery and created a…
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Statistics

Medical research continues to try to learn the best industry practices that can help most people. They constantly work to learn more about these different…
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Symptoms

Cerebral palsy is a severe disability that can affect anyone, even infants who’ve had a clean bill of health during a mother’s pregnancy. It is…
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Arched Back Crying

Infants cry—that's a fact. When you have to worry is when they have an arched back because this isn't normal. You may not always have…
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Arm Bent Toward Body

You may be wondering, "What does it mean when your infant has its arm bent toward body?" In some cases, it may not be anything…
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Childhood Dysarthria

When your infant has childhood dysarthria, this condition has a negative impact on the child's motor speech. Normally, when this happens, it's because the muscles…
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Delay Development

Sometimes when a birth injury occurs, the infant suffers as a result, but a lot of people don't realize the damage until much later. One…
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Excessive Drooling

You notice that your child seems to drool excessively. This could even indicate further underlying problems with your child that you may want to have…
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Fever

When your child experiences a fever, you could also refer to it as pyrexia. This natural bodily reaction happens whenever your body responds to an…
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Foul Smelling Greasy Stool

One of the least fun parts about being a parent, changing an infant's diapers probably ranks low on the scale of enjoyable tasks. Nevertheless, this…
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Hairy Patch Back

You have a few cases where your child may be born with fine hairs. This comes shortly after birth, but these hairs will normally fall…
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Infant Feeding Problems

You try to feed your child, but he doesn't seem interested. What do you do now? Is there something wrong with him? You will see…
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Inflamed Nasal Passages

When your child experiences inflamed nasal passages, this can turn into a serious health condition if you don't address it right away. In most cases,…
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Life

After a birth injury, you may be wondering how life with your child will be. That largely depends on the circumstances of the injury because…
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Lack of Muscle Control

You hope that when you have a child that they will enter the world as healthy as possible, but you have cases where that won't…
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Mobility Aids

Having cerebral palsy can act as a lifelong disability that your child doesn't know how to deal with. They might have issues with mobility as…
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Craniosacral Therapy

Considered one of the newer forms of treatment, Craniosacral therapy sometimes gets applied to children who have head trauma. Many times, they use this for…
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

After a child has suffered a birth injury, some doctors believe that the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy could go a long ways to lowering…
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Medications

In the United States, you have a decent track record where one out of every 1,000 babies will be born with a birth injury. In…
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Orthopedic Surgery

In general, doctors try to do other things first before they decide on surgery because of how all surgeries come with their own set of…
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Clinical Trials

Clinical trials have been used in the medical community as a way to understand treatments, medicines and medical equipment better. Through clinical trials, researchers learn…
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Cure

When it comes to birth disorder, you have over 4,000 different kinds that could affect your child. While you might feel alone in this, the…
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Types

You have a variety of birth injuries that you can encounter with your child. While some will only last a few days to a couple…
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Types of Cerebral Palsy

Though all people with CP have problems with movement and posture, doctors classify CP into one of four types based on the main type of…
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Cerebral Palsy Symptoms

Considered a severe disability that can have lasting side effects, some of the cerebral palsy symptoms can be quite debilitating. It can leave a child…
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Cerebral Palsy Causes

Cerebral Palsy is caused by damage or abnormal development of the brain's outer layer, the cerebral cortex. Depending on how it occurred, it might be…
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Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis

In general, diagnosis of cerebral palsy occurs during a newborn's first 2 years as part of their regular health care provider visits. During these visits,…
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Cerebral Palsy Life Expectancy

While cerebral palsy can cause debilitating effects that they will feel throughout their lifetime, this disease doesn't classify as degenerative, which means that it would…
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Living with Cerebral Palsy

While CP can be a debilitating disorder, with the help of assistive devices there is hope for a relatively normal life. Further, because CP is…
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Causes

When talking about birth injury, the leading cause of these injuries come from delayed birth. The human brain doesn't have the capabilities to withstand ongoing…
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Surgery

You have some cases where your doctor might recommend that your child have a surgery after a birth disorder like cerebral palsy. What are the…
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Causes

When infants have problems with their brachial plexus, you could have a variety of causes. A chief cause of this comes from damaging the nerve…
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Prognosis

When a brachial plexus injury happens, this birth injury happens through damage that occurred to the nerves that control the movement in the arms and…
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Symptoms

What are some of the brachial plexus symptoms that you should be aware of to indicate that your child suffered an injury? Depending on the…
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Diagnosis

Brachial plexus injury can be a debilitating birth injury that can take away your child's ability to move his hands, arms or shoulders. If you…
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Risk Factors

The treatment for brachial plexus injuries have improved over the last couple of decades, but we still see many brachial plexus injuries. In fact, they…
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Cure

Does your child have a brachial plexus injury? If so, you may be looking for a brachial plexus cure, and while doctors don't have a…
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Brain Damage

The last thing that you ever want to hear from your doctor is that your child has suffered brain damage, but these things happen. Infant…
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Causes

Within the United States, 1.7 million people develop some form of brain damage each year. It becomes even more disconcerting, however, when it happens in…
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Risk Factors

Understanding some of the infant brain damage risk factors can go a long way to helping you overcome the risks associated through awareness. In some…
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Prognosis

What does an infant brain damage prognosis look like? With this type of health condition, it largely depends on the severity of the brain damage.…
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Symptoms

You have a variety of infant brain damage symptoms, and how severe the effects are will depend on the severity of the symptoms. Traumatic brain…
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Diagnosis

When it comes to an infant brain damage diagnosis, doctors will normally find out if your child has suffered brain damage through ordering an MRI…
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Cure

Unfortunately, there is no cure for cerebral palsy. When you suffer brain damage, it will last for life because researchers haven't learned how to reverse…
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Cerebral Palsy Cure

The search for a cure for cerebral palsy rages on because this debilitating illness can have lasting effects throughout the child's lifetime. Based on information…
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History

When you look at cerebral palsy history, this health condition hasn't gone anywhere since the beginning of time. You can race across the spectrum of…
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Prognosis

Luckily, if your child gets diagnosed with cerebral palsy, they will often live as long of a life as a regular person. It depends on…
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Birth Asphyxia

Injuries at birth can have serious consequences. Even when your child experiences one of the milder injuries, the medical costs can pile up, and the…
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Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Another word for retardation, intrauterine growth restriction means infants that don't grow as they were expected to during the pregnancy. In the prenatal stages, also…
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Doctors

If your child suddenly comes up with a problem, blaming your doctor is common because the doctor had a responsibility to protect your child. You…
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Exercise

No matter who you are, anyone can benefit from exercises because of how the benefits are widespread for everyone. Even children who have cerebral palsy…
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Stem Cell Therapy

Considered a new form of treatment, stem cell therapy for cerebral palsy has only recently begun to be used, but they have found the results…
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Ataxic

Known as the least common form of cerebral palsy, only around five to 10 percent of those with Cerebral Palsy have this form of the…
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Athetoid Dystonic Dyskinetic

This specific type of Cerebral Palsy presents as abnormal muscular movements. Due to brain damage that took place in the basal ganglia, dystonia results in…
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Diplegic

Occasionally referred to as "Little's Disease," this became the first form of CP that doctors ever diagnosed and named. Most commonly presenting as muscle spasticity…
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Epidural Hematoma

Considered a form of traumatic brain injury, epidural hematoma has the potential to lead to cerebral palsy due to the damage it causes the brain.…
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Hemiparetic Hemiplegic

Considered two separate forms of cerebral palsy, both forms come with the same types of disability. They're similar in that only one side of the…
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Hypertonic and Hypotonic

Doctors have called this the most common form of cerebral palsy that a child can get, which has its advantages, but it's still a form…
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Intracranial Hemorrhage-IVH

Sometimes infants will suffer a type of brain hemorrhaging before or shortly after their birth. This can negatively impact several parts of the brain responsible…
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Non-Spastic

Non-spastic cerebral palsy is defined as when a child experiences unstable and weakened muscle tone. Your child will most likely experience jerky and sudden movements…
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Subdural Hematoma

As the blood accumulates outside of the brain, a dangerous amount of pressure builds on the skull, and this can result in different types of…
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Infant Apraxia

When you go to have a child, the last thing that you want is for that child to have a birth injury. You spent nine…
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Infant Bruising

After you have had your child, you have to pay attention to them especially close to ensure that they don't display any negative signs or…
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